How To Choose The Right Packaging Materials For You

You may have spent years meticulously designing the perfect product for your business. Now that it is time to launch it, you must consider packaging. The way your product is packaged says a lot about your brand, and it is the first experience that your customer will get of your product. Due to this, it is worth taking some time to make sure you choose the perfect packaging for you.

There are many factors to consider when selecting your brand. Product safety in transportation, as well as maintaining freshness for any organic products is also key. In addition to the functionality, branding and style also leave lasting impressions and can actually be selling points. Below are some points of consideration when choosing the right packaging materials for your product.

1. Budget

Of course, your product is your business and you want to ensure you are making a profit. For this reason you must decide on what part of your overhead costs you want to assign to packaging. You must also consider ratio and scale. It may not be wise to choose expensive packaging materials for the a product that is designed to be cheap and affordable.

Once you have decided on the budget, you can look at the materials that are within your price range. Natural fibres are generally attractive to the eye but are more expensive than other alternatives.

2. Environmental impact

Plastic is usually the most affordable and versatile packaging option, however, it is not the most environmentally friendly. Depending on your target consumers, some may be willing to spend extra for more environmentally friendly options. Including this information on the packaging itself can often make customers feel better about paying slightly more for packaging that is not going to pollute the planet for decades to come.

3. Shipping

You need to make sure the packaging you select is functional for protecting your product. If it’s not going to ensure your product reaches the stores or consumer homes without being damaged, then it is not the packaging for you. If your product is fragile, then you need to consider strong and padded packaging. If it is a fresh product than you need to ensure that the packaging allows sufficient airing to help maintain its shelf life. Remember that a little short term investment in appropriate packaging can save you money you may have to pay for goods that become damaged during transportation.

4. Size & Weight

It is essential to ensure that the packaging is suited to the size of the product. Packaging that is overly large, or too small, will affect the aesthetics of the final result. In addition, if your product is going to be shipped around the globe, then the weight of the packaging matters. Heavier products cost more to ship and so considering lightweight options may be more cost effective.

5. Consider your customers

Your customers should be at the forefront of any packaging choice that you make. Very often, consumers will consider a brand, rather than an individual product. If your product is something eco-friendly, for example, then environmentally friendly packaging may actually be something that helps sell your product. Market research can be an effective means of learning about your audience’s preferences. If you learn a little about their priorities and values, then you can use your budget to make design choices that you know will attract the crowd.


There are limitless options when it comes to packaging. Depending on your product size and quality, you will want to select packaging that complements it. Knowing a little about your consumers will also help you make the best decision, and your packaging may help bring in more business.

At Bang Packing we offer a diverse range of quality packaging products to meet you individual needs. From stationery packaging to gift boxes, we have premium products on offer. Get in touch to learn more about how we can help you get the best packaging on a budget.

Small Business Tips: The Importance Of Product Packaging

Usually, when a manufacturer makes a product, their primary target is making profits. Another plausible reason is to deliver in terms of product quality. They will go to great lengths to ensure that it’s of the same or even better quality.

They’ll see to it that the state in which the product left the factory is the same condition it will be in when the customer buys it.

The manufacturer may have no control over how retailers will handle the product, but they can definitely safeguard the product by ensuring quality packaging. The following are a few other reasons why product packaging is essential and cannot be overlooked.

1. Protection

This is the most important function of product packaging. A company knows just how sensitive the product is.

So deciding on how to package it for release to the market is a decision not to be taken lightly. It is a known fact that the product goes through a lot of handling. Before it begins its journey from the factory, to the market, and then to the consumer, it has to be efficiently packed.

The protection function could be divided into some classes:

  • Natural deterioration
  • Physical protection
  • Safety
  • Waste reduction

2. Distinction

Packaging a product also entails branding and marking the package with details associated with the company.  

The logic behind this is that numerous other companies offer a similar product, and it is an effort to make it stand out.

Companies often try to outshine each other’s product; thus, they can take advantage of the product packaging to get ahead of their competitors. They do their best to ensure that the packaging of their product is the most appealing.

3. The Attraction Of Potential Buyers

Another critical role of packaging is to attract the buyer to the product. In the present era, many similar products flood the market, each struggling to get noticed. Every manufacturer is continuously looking for new ways to package their products freshly and uniquely.

Companies spend tidy sums on research to determine what draws a product to the buyer, to make them favour the product instead of countless others.

Shoppers have admitted that they ‘cheated on’ their preferred product with another. They stated a reason for this attraction is the impressive packaging of the other brand.

4. Relays Information

Another critical function of product packaging is that it provides useful information about the product. The name of the product, why it is superior to other products similar to it and why you should buy it, are important pieces of information.

Others are the ingredients in it, the expiry date, directions for use, where it was made, among others. Ideally, a customer would seek information from the clerk at the store. But in instances where the clerk is not available, the customer will find all the information he needs from the packaging.

5. Conserves the Environment

Depending on the type of packaging, this is possible. Most companies have realized that their customers appreciate efforts towards conserving the environment. This initiative resonates very well with them, and they try hard to impress them.

Research has shown that buyers are most likely to buy items with reusable and biodegradable packaging. These are more favourable to the environment because they are easily broken down.

Bottom Line

Gone are the days when manufacturers thought little of the packages that their products came in. Today, product packaging plays a huge role in determining sales, even how well it is received in the market. Investing in attractive, high-quality brand packaging is massive marketing in itself. It is a relatively new concept, but the results are worth every penny in the long run.

How to Strategically Use Imagery on Packaging

As the old saying goes, a picture really is worth a thousand words. When you have limited space on your product packaging, you can make that space go a lot further by strategically placing targeted imagery on your product packaging. But how do you do that without cluttering the packaging surface and leaving out important information about the product?

At Bang Packaging, we’ve helped countless businesses transform their packaging to not only decrease costs, but also improve customer engagement with their brand. Using imagery on your packaging is an important part of any marketing campaign, and here’s how you can use imagery on your next packaging upgrade.

Imagery is More Than a Logo

First and foremost, imagery is so much more than a logo. Too often we see businesses that only place their logo on all of their product packages. There are products and branding themes that require a minimalist approach to packaging design, but if you’re not working toward a minimalist branding, there’s often room to add eye-catching, intriguing images to your packages.

By looking at your business theme and branding, you can begin to develop strategic imagery that works with your product packaging. Your logo is a fantastic foundation to build your database of consistent imagery to use across your business. From small product packages to large shipping boxes, using imagery adds another layer of brand recognition to your packaging.

What Story Do You Want to Tell?

You should always ask yourself what kind of story you want to tell before making any packaging design decisions. Many small businesses don’t have the luxury of a dedicated marketing team, and if you don’t have access to a marketing team, it’s not impossible to create a robust marketing campaign on your own.

Imagery often plays a bigger role in your brand story than words on your packaging or business website, so it’s important to take your image selection seriously. Once you decide your business theme and messaging, you can then narrow down what format your images should be.

Types of Imagery to Use

There are generally two routes your business imagery can take, and many businesses seamlessly combine the two – photography and digital illustration. For example, a logo is typically a digital illustration, while brand imagery can often be photography. However, when it comes to packaging, combining the two on one space can make the branding seem unclear.

A digital illustration gives you more freedom to work with the packaging space as you create the design, while photography allows you to capture real-world elements that connect your audience with your product.

Maximising Packaging Space

Now that we’ve discussed some of the important components of choosing your imagery, it’s time to maximise the packaging space by striking a balance between images and text. To keep your packaging clean and professional, we recommend no more than one frontal image and one image on the back of your package in addition to your business logo.

The front of your packaging should clearly indicate the product and have minimal text aside from what is necessary to inform your customers about the product and its benefits. The back of the package should be reserved for any technical and legally-required text, as well as information about your business and brand. Limiting your elements on the back of your packaging keeps the design streamlined – for example, one section for an image, one section for your business and product information, and one section for legally-required text if applicable.

Bang Packaging

There’s a lot that goes into attractive product packaging, and when you throw imagery into the mix, it can be that much more complicated to create an effective packaging design. Not only does Bang Packaging produce high-quality packaging materials for your business, but we can also assist with your packaging design.

For more information on how Bang Packaging can help you and your business, contact us today.

Developing a Packaging Strategy

Whether you’re a new business or you’re a seasoned entrepreneur, there will come a time when you need to re-assess your current packaging in order to develop a new strategy. As consumer trends change, so should product packaging. New styles, materials, and goals are often needed to grab the attention of new customers and even keep your existing customers around.

A packaging strategy can often be more difficult than it sounds because there’s a lot to consider in order to create a successful strategy. Not only should your packaging be functional, but it should also supplement other areas of your business and boost your brand image in the marketplace. Here’s what you should consider when you develop a packaging strategy.

Understand Your Market

Before you even start your initial packaging redesign, you need to fully understand your market. Each market and industry will typically have unique packaging trends that can dictate whether your packaging is successful or if it’s a wasted investment. Align your packaging with your business goals and objectives. Strategic analysis can help you see where your industry is headed in the future, allowing you to plan your packaging accordingly.

When you think about successful companies, whether local or international, many of them may be first recognized by their packaging. They are leaders in their industry because they have a recognized brand, often first seen by product packaging and marketing. Assess your current market and analyse trends and consumer behaviours to get a solid foundation on what a successful packaging strategy might look like.

Safety and Functionality

Next, you need to consider safety, both for your employees assembling your packaging as well as the consumers that will interact with your packaging. Safety is extremely important in both scenarios, and thorough assembly processes and packaging testing will keep your employees and consumers safe.

Packaging needs to be functional, otherwise it isn’t even serving its primary purpose. Consumers know when businesses cut corners to save money on packaging, and may actually push some customers away. Flimsy materials and poor designs are two major functionality flaws that your customers will certainly notice.


Set a budget for packaging and stick to it. It can be difficult to know just how much your packaging will cost, so we always recommend partnering with Bang Packaging for a personalized custom packaging quote. Sticking to your budget is extremely important, especially for small businesses.

Don’t be discouraged if your budget is lower than what you anticipated. There are plenty of designs and materials that you can choose to create high-quality packaging on a low budget. You shouldn’t have to sacrifice functional, durable, and effective packaging based on your budget.


Finally, your packaging is one of the most effective tools in your marketing toolkit, but is often underutilised by inexperienced marketers. Think of your packaging as a blank canvas to market your business. While the space on the packaging itself may be limited, the possibilities are truly endless.

Products sold in stores are seen by hundreds, potentially thousands of customers per day. Having the right marketing on your packaging can help convert casual shoppers into loyal customers. Partner with your marketing team or consult with a marketing expert to maximise the effectiveness of your packaging.

Bang Packaging

As you can see, there’s a lot to consider when redesigning your product packaging. The right strategy starts with the right partner, and when you choose Bang Packaging, you’re choosing a partner with years of experience in the custom packaging industry. We’ll work with you to understand your business, your products, and your overall goals to create a custom packaging strategy.

For more information on how we can help your business, or to set up an initial project consultation, contact the team at Bang Packaging today.

Why Businesses Should Reduce Packaging Waste

With virtually countless products being packaged and sold every day in Australia, it’s important that businesses think about the impact that their packaging has not only on their business, but also their customers, communities, and the environment. Responsible packaging has a wide range of benefits, but too many businesses ignore the negative impacts of excess, wasteful packaging.

Whether you’re looking to cut costs or you want to have less of a negative impact on the environment, there are plenty of reasons why you should re-evaluate your current product packaging. At Bang Packaging, we understand how to maximise packaging effectiveness while minimising waste. Here are some top reasons why businesses should reduce packaging waste.

Environmental Benefits

First and foremost, reducing packaging waste has a direct impact on the environment. The less packaging material that’s wasted means less packaging ends up in landfills or in our environment. Reducing plastic waste is extremely important, as plastic can take thousands of years to decompose. Even making the switch from plastic to a biodegradable material can make a major difference.

Businesses should also think of ways to reduce paper packaging waste as well. While paper decomposes much faster than plastic, it still impacts the environment negatively when businesses use paper products irresponsibly. Excess paper packaging means more trees are cut down for paper production. Re-assessing your current packaging needs to streamline and simplify your packaging allows you to have a positive impact on our environment.

Cut Costs

Not only will you be able to help the environment, but you’ll also be able to cut down on your business expenses. When you simplify your packaging and reduce packaging waste, you’re saving your business countless dollars that can be allocated to other areas of the business. Just because you’re spending less money on packaging doesn’t mean that your packaging is less effective.
For example, you may assess a current product packaging and find a way to design a new package that reduces the amount of material needed by 25%. If you’re packaging thousands of products, those savings can quickly add up. You don’t need to sacrifice quality and functionality in order to save money – it all comes down to smart packaging design.

Better Public Image

Consumers care about more than just the cost of a product. If a business isn’t using sustainable packaging methods, there are plenty of consumers that will purchase a competitor’s product. When you actively work to reduce your overall packaging waste, your business will have a better public image.
Have a positive impact on the environment and cut down on costs all while potentially gaining new customers that appreciate businesses that make decisions with the environment in mind.

Ways to Reduce Packaging Waste

There are a few ways that you can reduce your packaging waste, including.

  • Package redesigns to use less material
  • Switching to biodegradable products
  • Packaging items in sets rather than individually

Taking just one of these steps and implementing it into your business can save your business money while helping the environment.

Bang Packaging

At Bang Packaging, we believe in sustainable business practices. Whether you’re looking for a simple upgrade to your existing packaging or you need a complete packaging overhaul, our team of designers can help. We offer a wide range of packaging styles and materials. We’ll work with you one on one to understand your product and vision to create a custom packaging plan that’s right for your business.

For more information on how Bang Packaging can help you create packaging that’s efficient, sustainable, and cost-effective, contact the team at Bang Packaging today.

How Tin Packaging Can Boost Your Sales

Packaging plays an important role in not only how your products are seen, but how your overall brand is seen.  Packaging should be both functional and stylish – there’s no packaging material more functional and stylish than tin packaging.  Tin is widely recognised as the most durable packaging material and is often used to protect delicate products. Aside from being durable, tin is a very attractive material that can do wonders for your brand image.  Here’s how tin packaging can boost your sales.

Known for Durability

If you want a packaging that is going to last, tin is going to give you unparalleled durability.  Unlike other packaging materials like cardboard, tin is meant to be a permanent packaging that adds style and elegance to your product.  Tin is perfect for keeping your delicate products safe during transit and in your customers’ homes and businesses.

There are so many uses for tin packaging.  Use them for collector’s edition items, food storage, colognes, promotional items, and so much more. When someone purchases a product in tin packaging, they’re relating your brand with quality, which will mean they’re more likely to be repeat customers.


Tin is an incredibly versatile material that can be used for virtually any packaging type.  This material is most often used in food materials because the tin products that we produce are all HACCP approved.  They’re also resistant to corrosion, making them the right choice for food and perishable item storage.

While food and perishables might be the most common use for tin, you can use them for a wide range of other items.  We love tin as a promotional item. Highlight a new product by packaging it in a high-quality tin package. It’s a great way to focus on one specific item in your inventory and can funnel sales right to that product.

Improve Brand Awareness

As you may know, packaging is one of the most powerful marketing tools available today.  If you’re not taking advantage of your packaging as a marketing technique, you’re missing out on potentially a lot of sales and customers.  Using tin for packaging can help set your brand apart from your competition. When you think about a customer shopping in a retail environment, the first thing they see when making a purchasing decision is the packaging of the product.  Tin is a high-end, eye-catching material that can certainly help boost your retail sales.

Unique Packaging Material

Tin is much more than just functional packaging.  They’re attractive, easily customised, and will last a long time, meaning your customers can use the tin packaging over and over again.  For those of you that are consciously trying to make decisions that have a positive impact on our environment, tin packaging is 100% recyclable, so you don’t have to worry about letting your packaging go to waste.  It’s hard to find a material that’s so attractive, durable, and customisable, all while being fully recyclable. Tin is a unique material that is just what you need to get a leg up on your competition.

Bang Packaging

We’ve been producing the highest-quality tin packaging for years, and we are ready to help you with your next tin packaging product.  If your sales have levelled off and you’re looking for new ways to boost your sales, it may be time to change up your packaging. Investing in tin packaging can bring your brand and products to the next level.  Consult with one of our experts today to get started on your custom-made tin packaging.

The Versatility of Vinyl Products

There are few stationery materials that are more diverse and versatile than vinyl.  The Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) material can be turned into many types of products, making it a great all-around material.  If you’re in the market for updated stationery products like Ring Binder, Folders, Wallets etc that’s going to last, consider using a vinyl for your next project.

Ways to Use Vinyl Stationery

The best part of using this durable material is that it is easily one of the most customisable options on the market.  It comes in a wide range of colours and we can easily print your logo or company information directly on vinyl.

Since vinyl is so easily shaped and customised, the ways to use vinyl are virtually endless.  Photo albums, wallets, ID pockets, folders, binders, tags, and passport holders are all materials that are most commonly made of vinyl.  Our premium vinyl stationery products will give you the versatility and durability that you need for your business.


Not only is vinyl extremely versatile and customisable, vinyl is one of the most cost-efficient materials available today.  Our special welding machines allow us to create your vinyl products quickly and affordably, all while maintaining the highest level of quality standards.  

Just because the material is cheap doesn’t mean that the final product has to look and feel cheap.  We understand how important it is to have effective, functional products for your brand and business, which is why we are dedicated to producing quality vinyl solutions at competitive prices.


As we’ve previously mentioned, vinyl is one of the most durable materials on the market.  Where other materials might become damaged in transit, vinyl is known for being able to withstand most rough transit, drops, and spills.  Regardless of your product, products that last and won’t become damaged is important to your customers. They want to know that the product they are purchasing is durable and protected.

From photo albums to binders, vinyl provides the protection and durability that your customers have come to expect.  Their photos and documents are extremely important, and our high-quality vinyl products will keep their possessions safe.  Vinyl is naturally resistant to moisture, which is ideal for storing important photographs and documents. A beautiful vinyl photo album or binder can keep photos and documents safe for years to come.


There are very few materials that are as easily customised as vinyl.  Since it is a durable, flexible material, we can shape or colour material any way you’d like, which opens up a world of design possibilities.  If you have a large selection of inventory that all need different styles and colours, vinyl is a simple and cost-effective way to achieve that.  Take a look at some of our vinyl products online that we manufacture to see just how easily you can customise high-quality vinyl.

Bang Packaging

We love using vinyl as a material and have had the pleasure of working on some truly incredible vinyl projects.  As you can see, vinyl is very cost-effective, efficient, and versatile. Regardless of your project, there’s a way to make vinyl products work for you.

While changing your product is no small task, the process can be much less stressful when you choose Bang Packaging’s high-end vinyl.  You’ll be choosing a products that you know is going to last, which means your products and inventory are protected. Get in touch with one of our experienced consultants today to start the transformation.

Printing Company and Product Information on Packaging: How Much is Too Much?

When you’re considering updating your product packaging, it’s important to think about the information that will be on your packaging.  It can be difficult to strike the right balance between too much information on your packaging and not enough. You want to provide enough information about the product to your customers without overwhelming them.  Here are some top tips to ensure you have the right amount of information on your packaging.

What to Include

There are some pieces of information that you should definitely include on your product packaging.  Aside from the obvious name of the product as well as your company name and logo, you should always include information on what the product is, how to use it, and how it can benefit the customer.

If your customer is looking at your product on the shelf and comparing it to competitor products, you need to have concise, relevant yet simple information right on the packaging that gives them all the information they need to make a purchasing decision.

What Not to Include

One of the biggest mistakes we see with new business packaging is including too much advertising or promotional content on product packaging.  Having too much promotional content on your product packaging can turn your customers away from purchasing your product.

While you should always include necessary product information for your customers, including unnecessary additional advertising content is not recommended – you should be confident in the quality of your product without needing additional advertisements on your packaging.

Safety Information

If you sell products that have the potential to be harmful if not used properly, you should always include important safety information on your product packaging to ensure your customers are aware of the potential risks of using your product incorrectly.

This is especially important for products with toxic chemicals.  Always clearly label your products to make it clear that there are harsh chemicals used in your product.  There are several labelling requirements set by the Department of Industry, Innovation, and Science that you should familiarise yourself with before designing your packaging.

Legal Requirements

When designing a label or other informational content for your packaging, you must always ensure that the information complies with the Competition and Consumer Act 2010.  This law was put in place to protect consumers and prevents false or misleading information to be printed on product packaging and labels.

It also regulates what information is required to be given to customers, including regulations for food products, country of origin for imported goods, and labelling products with chemicals, to name a few.  It’s important to follow all packaging and labelling regulations in order to avoid fines and penalties.

Using Packaging Strategically

New businesses often make the mistake of not utilising packaging as a powerful marketing tool.  If you’re not taking full advantage of your packaging for marketing, you’re potentially missing out on quite a few potential customers.  When you think of successful companies such as Amazon, you first might think of their shipping boxes. Everyone knows the simple Amazon label and can spot an Amazon box very easily.

Choosing Bang Packaging

When it comes to revamping your packaging to create that is more functional, stylish, and attractive, look no further than the manufacturing team at Bang Packaging.  We have years of experience creating high-end packaging solutions for a wide range of clients. Check out some of our projects to see how we can transform your business today.  Give us a call or send us an email to start your next packaging project.

5 Ways to Maximise the Effectiveness of Your Packaging

In today’s market, packaging is much more than just functional. Packaging is being strategically used to increase sales and boost brand awareness. If you’re only focused on creating packaging that is functional, you’re missing out on a big opportunity for your business. Here are five ways to maximise the effectiveness of your packaging and why it’s so important to do so.

Personalise It

Your customers care about the packaging of your products almost as much as the product itself.  Whether it’s the product packaging or shipping boxes, you need to come up with a unique design that is personal to your brand and image.

A great way to test if your packaging successful, think of your box as a separate product entirely – would you buy that box?  If so, you’re probably on the right track. Separating the product from the packaging can help you focus on effective packaging design.

An Unboxing Surprise

One of the best ways to up your packaging game is to add a surprise for your customers to find when they open the box.  If you’re shipping goods out directly to customers, it’s quite simple to put a handwritten note or small trinket in the box for them to find.

Your customers will definitely notice your extra effort when they pull a fun extra surprise out of the box.  Something small and personal can make all the difference when your customers think about their next purchase – by putting in some extra effort with fun surprises, you’ll notice more repeat customers.

Think of Your Brand

When you’re designing your custom packaging, whether it’s for product packaging or shipping materials, think about your overall brand and how you want your brand to be seen.  Your packaging is a powerful marketing tool not only to boost your brand image, but also to get it in front of as many potential customers as possible.

Material Choice is Important

An important factor that will certainly impact the outcome of your packaging is your material choice.  Customers will easily be able to tell if you choose a low-quality material, and it will make them think negatively about your brand.  While higher-quality materials can certainly cost more, they’re worth the additional investment.

Using better-quality cardboards and materials that add texture to your packaging is an excellent way to make your packaging stand out against your competition.  Whether your products are sitting on the shelves or you ship them directly to your customers, material choice can make all the difference with your customers.

Package With Care

Our last tip for maximising your packaging is to package your products with care.  The arrangement of your products in shipping boxes matters to your customers, and they’ll notice if the box is packed poorly.  Keeping your products arranged neatly in your shipping box is a simple way to show your customers that you care about their entire experience, from start to finish.

Not only will proper packaging keep your products looking neat, it will also keep them safe in transit.  By taking the time to secure your products in their shipping boxes, you’re ensuring that your products aren’t going to be broken during transit.  Nobody likes opening a package to find broken products, and your customers will appreciate that you took the time to secure their purchase.

As you can see, there are plenty of ways to maximise the effectiveness of your packaging.  From material choice to branding, packaging is an important part of your product. For more information on how you can use packaging as an effective marketing tool, contact the manufacturing team at Bang Packaging today.

5 Reasons to Manufacture Packaging in Australia

Local contact with expert advice.

The advantage of partnering with a professional manufacturer like Bang Packaging is that you have a dedicated account manager who can address your requirements or any questions in real time. Plus, the added advantage of visiting the factory and showroom.


Dealing with a local manufacturer allows clients to discuss in detail what they require. Viewing & feeling samples of products, designs and materials make for a clearer understanding of what can be achieved.

 Time Saving.

Local production results in quicker production turnaround times meaning tight deadlines can be achieved, coupled with local or interstate transport the overall time and cost saving can become significant.

 Quality Control.

Pre-production samples give the client a clear understanding of what the finished product will function like, ‘Tweaks’ can be quickly addressed prior to mass production. Our expert manufacturing team has over 30 years’ experience and quality check at every stage of production to ensure you are getting what you paid for. As a local manufacturer, Bang Packaging gives every client a guarantee of quality.


Peace of mind knowing that your products will be of the highest standards, produced on time, while protecting your intellectual property is invaluable, so partnering with a professional local manufacturer like Bang Packaging makes good business sense.

Call us to discuss your next project or book time to view our comprehensive range of products in our showroom.